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page trail:  Templot Club > Forums > Trackbuilding topics > 3D Printed Track and Turnouts
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             Rating                           3D Printed Track and Turnouts
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1st message | this message only posted: 9 Aug 2015 05:18
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from:
Andrew Barrowman
USA

 

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Greetings fellow Templotters,
As some of you already know, I've been messing about trying to print turnout bases on a 3D printer.
It's fairly easy to create a 3D model of the timbers in CAD from any Templot template. It's also fairly simple to drag models of the chairs into the correct positions and orientation and combine them to produce an STL file to drive a printer.
What is not so easy is producing 3D models for chairs that a) actually work, and b) don't look too horrible!
I think I have reached a point where I'm limited by the printing technology itself. The results are actually a lot better than I thought they might be when I started out. Anyway, I've been making some wild guesses about chair dimensions, and I have not had a lot of luck finding anything on the Web.
Any information would be greatly appreciated.
(Here's a bit of track I've been using to test the latest chair design.)
Cheers!Andy



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2nd message | this message only posted: 9 Aug 2015 06:11
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from:
Martin Wynne
West Of The Severn, United Kingdom



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Hi Andy,

Chairs vary quite a bit across different periods and companies.

There are drawings of "Standard Railway Equipment" (i.e. REA) chairs here. These would be your best bet for the majority of bullhead models:

 http://www.scalefour.org/downloads/gwrtracknotes/R4290A.pdf

Plus several pages of specifically GWR chairs here (drawings 1734 - on):

 http://www.scalefour.org/resources/gwrtracknotes

regards,

Martin.

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3rd message | this message only posted: 9 Aug 2015 08:00
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from:
Andrew Barrowman
USA

 

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Hi Martin,
Thank you very much! 
From a 3D printer perspective, the bigger the better. Based on your information it looks as if I'm not too far off.
BTW, in case you had not already guessed, my ulterior motive for posting here was the possibility that someone might take this to the next level. It's beyond my capability, but I'm pretty sure someone "skilled in the art" could cook up a program that automatically combines models derived from Templot with models of the appropriate chairs to produce a stereo lithography file that can be fed to a 3D printer.
Cheers!Andy


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4th message | this message only posted: 10 Aug 2015 07:59
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from:
Les G
 

 

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My local Maker-Space has a number of 3d printers; I have been custodian-between-meetings for one of them for about 18months. During that time we have encountered a number of limitations of printer capability.

  The relevant issue with printing sleeper and chair as a component, is that the home DIY printers deposit plastic onto a plate, on ours it is heated glass.  This deposition process means that any overhangs are unsupported.  Test prints of arch-like components all show a degradation of the under-surface at the top of the arch, amounting to about 30 degrees of arc. It follows that the part of the chair which grips the rail will always be imprecise. Great care would be needed to obtain accurate gauging, and there would also be mechanical difficulties when fitting the rails to the chairs in a complex formation

There are layer deposition processes in which the layers are formed by fusing powdered plastic which supports overhanging shapes, but the machines are very expensive.

None of this takes anything away from the potential of linking Templot output to drawing software for the purpose of producing STL files for bespoke timbers for use in conventional hand-built track, then using moulded chairs eg C&L or Exactoscale.

 Les G

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5th message | this message only posted: 10 Aug 2015 10:17
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from:
Paul Boyd
Loughborough, United Kingdom

 

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At work, we use a company called Shapeways for prototyping.  There are various material options, some of which are eminently suitable for track work.  Costs are reasonable as well - this company makes it feasible for hobbyists to upload and print using a professional SLS process.  Put it this way, using Shapeways made far more sense for us than buying a "home" 3D printer with all its limitations.  I suppose I should say that I have no connection with the company!


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6th message | this message only posted: 10 Aug 2015 10:31
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from:
Howard
United Kingdom

 

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Les G wrote: ...the home DIY printers deposit plastic onto a plate, on ours it is heated glass.  This deposition process means that any overhangs are unsupported.  Test prints of arch-like components all show a degradation of the under-surface at the top of the arch, amounting to about 30 degrees of arc. 
For filament deposition printers (such as the Makerbot I use for the MERG kits) the effect of temperature can help overcome this. The two servo mount kits illustrated were printed at different temperatures. The higher temperature makes the filament (PLA in my case) less viscous and so it does not span the gap.



BTW it would help if the scale/gauge were mentioned in these posts. I'm assuming O gauge, but I could be wrong.
Howard Watkins.


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7th message | this message only posted: 10 Aug 2015 10:34
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from:
Martin Wynne
West Of The Severn, United Kingdom



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Hi Paul,

David Rayner uses the Shapeways service for his "Off The Rails" track parts in 7mm scale, see:

 http://www.shapeways.com/shops/otr

 http://85a.co.uk/forum/view_topic.php?id=1503&forum_id=6&jump_to=17704#p9375

regards,

Martin.

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8th message | this message only posted: 10 Aug 2015 10:54
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from:
Martin Wynne
West Of The Severn, United Kingdom



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Howard wrote:BTW it would help if the scale/gauge were mentioned in these posts. I'm assuming O gauge, but I could be wrong.Hi Howard,

Andy's experiments are in 4mm scale. He has a long topic about it on RMweb:

 http://www.rmweb.co.uk/community/index.php?/topic/100879-printing-turnouts-on-a-3-d-printer/

By the way, your attached image is an empty file. Did you exceed the 6MB limit? It's better to use the Image Gallery for pictures:

 http://85a.co.uk/forum/gallery_view.php?display=ALL#gallery_top

edit: I see you did upload it to the Gallery. I have edited your message to include it. :)

regards,

Martin.

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9th message | this message only posted: 10 Aug 2015 16:20
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from:
Les G
 

 

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Howard wrote: For filament deposition printers (such as the Makerbot I use for the MERG kits) the effect of temperature can help overcome this. The two servo mount kits illustrated were printed at different temperatures. The higher temperature makes the filament (PLA in my case) less viscous and so it does not span the gap.

Howard,

What you describe matches our droopy experience of overhangs with a RepRap, and with a Mendel90. It is not too serious a problem generally, one can make an allowance in the model to allow a sufficient degree of manual fettling; or design the component to avoid it.

 Model railway Scale is not relevant to the work we have been doing, but when I model it is usually in 4mm.

 As a matter of interest, what temperature do you use for your extrusion of PLA ?

Les G

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10th message | this message only posted: 10 Aug 2015 19:13
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from:
Trevor Walling
United Kingdom

 

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Les G wrote:
Howard wrote: For filament deposition printers (such as the Makerbot I use for the MERG kits) the effect of temperature can help overcome this. The two servo mount kits illustrated were printed at different temperatures. The higher temperature makes the filament (PLA in my case) less viscous and so it does not span the gap.

Howard,

What you describe matches our droopy experience of overhangs with a RepRap, and with a Mendel90. It is not too serious a problem generally, one can make an allowance in the model to allow a sufficient degree of manual fettling; or design the component to avoid it.

 Model railway Scale is not relevant to the work we have been doing, but when I model it is usually in 4mm.

 As a matter of interest, what temperature do you use for your extrusion of PLA ?

Les G
Hello,
        For some reason I always thought higher temperatures meant greater viscosity and more likelihood of unsupported  overhangs drooping.
Regards.
Trevor.

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11th message | this message only posted: 11 Aug 2015 11:10
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from:
Les G
 

 

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You are correct: Lower viscosity = stiffer; higher viscosity = more free flowing.

Higher temperature makes the plastic more liquid, and more likely to droop. This is why temperature and filament feed speed are controlled.  Hence my query about extruder temperature for successful bridging.

Les G

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12th message | this message only posted: 12 Aug 2015 01:32
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from:
Andrew Barrowman
USA

 

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Ah yes! This sample is OO gauge - I should have mentioned that. Thanks Martin.

I'm using the cheapest printer I could find a couple of years ago, a Printrbot Simple. The unsupported overhang issue does not present a problem for me, and I'm able to get very consistent dimension and gauge results.

At the moment I'm working on optimizing the chair designs for turnouts and finding the method that allows me to generate a turnout with the least effort. I'll post the results when I have something I'm satisfied with.

BTW, I'm printing with PLA through a 0.25 mm nozzle. PLA is interesting stuff. Although it has a rather low melting point, it's quite hard, and it makes turnout bases that are surprisingly rigid, sufficiently so that it's possible to drag straight rail through the chairs for wings and checkrails.

More to follow :)
(PS - My Templot message alerts are no longer going to spam.)
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13th message | this message only posted: 12 Aug 2015 10:26
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from:
LSWRArt
Antibes, France

 

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There are some nice 3D printed 7mm chairs here - unfortunately not available in 4mm.  
http://www.shapeways.com/shops/otr
I have used some of these check rail chairs for point construction.  The only problem is that, for super fine detail, the plastic is quite hard and therefore rather brittle.  You have to be quite careful pushing the chairs onto the rail - especially as you are trying to move along two rails as once, but they are certainly nicely detailed and look the part.

Certainly at this scale and with these hard plastics there is no problem with droop.

Regards,
Arthur

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14th message | this message only posted: 12 Aug 2015 12:40
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from:
Howard
United Kingdom

 

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Les G wrote: You are correct: Lower viscosity = stiffer; higher viscosity = more free flowing.

Higher temperature makes the plastic more liquid, and more likely to droop. This is why temperature and filament feed speed are controlled.  Hence my query about extruder temperature for successful bridging.

Les G
The left hand image was done at 200 degrees, the right hand one (with drooping filament) at 220 degrees. Too low a temperature can mean parts do not adhere to the bed plate.
Howard.
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15th message | this message only posted: 12 Aug 2015 12:44
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Howard
United Kingdom

 

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Martin Wynne wrote:I see you did upload it to the Gallery. I have edited your message to include it. :)
Thanks Martin, I don't know why the picture was not included even though it was in the Gallery. I must be doing something wrong.
Howard.
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16th message | this message only posted: 12 Aug 2015 21:58
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from:
Les G
 

 

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Howard wrote: The left hand image was done at 200 degrees, the right hand one (with drooping filament) at 220 degrees. Too low a temperature can mean parts do not adhere to the bed plate.
Howard.

Thank you Howard,

We are currently printing PLA at 210 initial then 200 for the main print. Our Mendel90 has a nozzle  at 0.4 mm. We are using a glass plate heated to 60 degrees.  Adhesion is rarely a problem as long as the glass is squeaky clean; we use paper towel and meths for cleaning between prints.

There have been adhesion problems with small diameter prints at around 6 mill diameter  or less; a cure for this was to place the small cylinder on a sacrificial larger thin disc base and truncated cone. Another problem was found when printing a cylinder with 2mm dia spigot; the plastic became distorted due to insufficient cooling time between layers.  This was completely resolved by printing six components at a time. It took about seven seconds to complete each layer in the set, by which time the previous layer had cooled sufficiently to be stable.

regards

Les G

 

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17th message | this message only posted: 13 Aug 2015 09:51
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from:
Howard
United Kingdom

 

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Les G wrote:
We are currently printing PLA at 210 initial then 200 for the main print. Our Mendel90 has a nozzle  at 0.4 mm. We are using a glass plate heated to 60 degrees.  Adhesion is rarely a problem as long as the glass is squeaky clean; we use paper towel and meths for cleaning between prints.

There have been adhesion problems with small diameter prints at around 6 mill diameter  or less; 
The printer used by MERG is a Makerbot Replicator2. This also has a 0.4mm nozzle but no heated bed plate. For a large box (17cm x 8cm) I had problems with a corner lifting during printing. I tried helper discs
http://www.makerbot.com/blog/2013/04/19/keep-corners-flat-with-makerwares-helper-discs
but this did not solve the problem. I am now printing on BuildTak and that works
http://shop.3dfilaprint.com/buildtak-3d-printing-platform-surface-1200-p.asp
For very small objects I have also used double sided adhesive tape on top of the normal blue painter's tape.
Howard.
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18th message | this message only posted: 13 Aug 2015 14:00
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from:
Les G
 

 

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I have read about the problems of adhesion on unheated plates. There appears to be a high level of frustration from those who describe the need for cleaning off adhesive prior to fitting new tape. Contrast that with a 30 second wipe and polish with a bit of paper towel and a dab of methylated spirit.

In my view, the heated plate solution is the logical way to go. It also provides a very smooth base surface which can be used to advantage.

Les G
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19th message | this message only posted: 13 Aug 2015 17:28
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Andrew Barrowman
USA

 

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I'm using blue masking tape on an unheated metal bed. Seems to work well enough for me. I always give the tape a light rub with sandpaper between prints to remove any residue from the PLA and to provide a bit of key on the surface.

The Z-axis zero position is critical. My printer is a bit flimsy, so I have to keep a close eye on the Z adjustment to ensure a good first layer.

I've also found it's better to use a honeycomb fill on the bottom layer rather than make it solid.
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20th message | this message only posted: 2 Jan 2016 03:52
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from:
Andrew Barrowman
USA

 

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Turnout stereo lithography file.
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Attachment: Doh6p5v5R.stl (Downloaded 70 times)
 
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21st message | this message only posted: 2 Jan 2016 03:56
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from:
Martin Wynne
West Of The Severn, United Kingdom



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Andrew Barrowman wrote: Turnout stereo lithography file.Hi Andy,

Thanks for the file. I have downloaded it.

Now what? :?

Do you have a link for the software to use it?

regards,

Martin.

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Howard
United Kingdom

 

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Martin Wynne wrote: Andrew Barrowman wrote: Turnout stereo lithography file.Hi Andy,

Thanks for the file. I have downloaded it.

Now what? :?

Do you have a link for the software to use it?

regards,

Martin.
You can use the free download of the Makerbot Desktop to view the file

http://www.makerbot.com/desktop

I had to rescale the turnout to fit,  The Makerbot bed plate is 28.5 cm wide.
At 0.1mm resolution it would take 1.5 hours to print; I might give it a go later.



Howard Watkins
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23rd message | this message only posted: 2 Jan 2016 18:23
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Andrew Barrowman
USA

 

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Howard wrote: Martin Wynne wrote: Andrew Barrowman wrote: Turnout stereo lithography file.Hi Andy,

Thanks for the file. I have downloaded it.

Now what? :?

Do you have a link for the software to use it?

regards,

Martin.
You can use the free download of the Makerbot Desktop to view the filehttp://www.makerbot.com/desktop
I had to rescale the turnout to fit,  The Makerbot bed plate is 28.5 cm wide.
At 0.1mm resolution it would take 1.5 hours to print; I might give it a go later.
Howard Watkins
Mind how you go with that Howard. It may not be what you expect. We parked it there so that Martin could take a look at it with Meshlab.
Before you try to print it, you might want to run it through Netfabb to repair any defects. The .stl was produced in TurboCADpro16, and it sometimes has issues. Also, you might want to add webs to connect the timbers. I left them out for viewing clarity.

I have attached the .box file that generated the design.
You can find photos of similar turnouts I produced on RMweb. My "handle" there is AndyID. I'll post some of the shots on this thread in a bit.
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24th message | this message only posted: 2 Jan 2016 19:04
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from:
Martin Wynne
West Of The Severn, United Kingdom



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Hi Andy,

MeshLab keeps crashing on my system. For simply viewing and rotating the image, the free eDrawings viewer from Solidworks seems to be working much better. Download from:

 http://www.edrawingsviewer.com




regards,

Martin.

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Andrew Barrowman
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Howard wrote: Martin Wynne wrote: Andrew Barrowman wrote: Turnout stereo lithography file.Hi Andy,

Thanks for the file. I have downloaded it.

Now what? :?

Do you have a link for the software to use it?

regards,

Martin.
You can use the free download of the Makerbot Desktop to view the file

http://www.makerbot.com/desktop

I had to rescale the turnout to fit,  The Makerbot bed plate is 28.5 cm wide.
At 0.1mm resolution it would take 1.5 hours to print; I might give it a go later.



Howard Watkins

Hi Howard,
I just realized that you might be going to print the rails too. They are only there for cosmetic effect. They are not designed for printing. The rail web is very thin, and you would probably need to add supports of some sort to prevent sagging. I have printed check rails in the past, but not using that design.
regards,Andy
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26th message | this message only posted: 2 Jan 2016 21:04
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Martin Wynne
West Of The Severn, United Kingdom



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Hi Andy,

RMweb has gone down, so here is the .box file I just posted on there.

This is for the 4ft-1.5in gauge templates which I have been playing with.

I'm not sure what you are waiting for? :?

regards,

Martin.

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from:
Andrew Barrowman
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Yes, I think I broke it when I replied :)

Thanks Martin. That's exactly what I need. I'll add the 3D elements to it so we can view it.
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Andrew Barrowman
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Some recent 3D prints. These are in H00-DN gauge (other gauges in Templot).

I uploaded them to the Gallery but I can't seem to figure out how to Insert them into the message.

(Using Chrome on Windows10.)

edit: Now resolved Using FireFox












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29th message | this message only posted: 3 Jan 2016 07:24
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Andrew Barrowman
USA

 

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.stl file of a 00-BF V-6 turnout attached.
This file is intended for viewing only. It requires further editing before 3D printing.
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Martin Wynne
West Of The Severn, United Kingdom



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Andrew Barrowman wrote: I uploaded them to the Gallery but I can't seem to figure out how to Insert them into the message.

This is what I get when I try. (Using Chrome on Windows10.)
Hi Andy,

Google Chrome is the new Internet Explorer, doing its own thing with web sites. :(

Generally Firefox is the best option for this site (and many others).

This is how to insert images using Google Chrome (and Safari):

1. don't use the long Gallery buttons on the posting editor. Instead use the blue Gallery Upload button at the very top of the page. It will open in a new tab, so that you don't lose your post.

2. upload your image(s) to the Gallery.

3. display the required image in the Gallery.

4. right-click on it, and select Copy Image Location or Copy Image Address to get the image URL.

5. back on the posting page, click this button:

6. paste in the copied URL and click OK.

7. the image will be inserted in your post. It may be immediately visible, or you may need to click Preview to see it (depending on how your browser is feeling today). After previewing you can scroll back down to continue posting.

This web site uses some rather old code. It's been rock-solid reliable for years, but unfortunately browsers keep changing and it needs updating to something more modern. When I can find the time. :)

regards,

Martin.

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from:
Martin Wynne
West Of The Severn, United Kingdom



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Andrew Barrowman wrote: .stl file of a 00-BF V-6 turnout attached.
This file is intended for viewing only. It requires further editing before 3D printing.
Hi Andy,

Looking very good. Thanks for doing this. :)



Note that the crossing chairs (A, B, C, X, Y) need to be skewed so that they are square to the centre-line of the vee.

Also chair "A" should be a slab & bracket design, with a through bolt (for a 1950s design). We will let you off that (for now).

The old style of cast "A" chair is ok for earlier periods.

regards,

Martin.

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from:
Martin Wynne
West Of The Severn, United Kingdom



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Hi Andy,

I have increased the upload limit to 10MB in case you need to upload larger STL files.

Attachments on this forum are stored as a BLOB in the database (Binary Large Object) which is not ideal but it seems to be working fine in practice.

Fortunately the donations fund is happily covering the web costs at present.

regards,

Martin.

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from:
Martin Wynne
West Of The Severn, United Kingdom



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Hi Andy,

This is Templot's native DXF export (3D setting), viewed in eDrawings:

(This is the 1:7.5 crossing.)




It doesn't seem to be possible to import a DXF into MeshLab?

It's now about 15 years since I wrote the DXF export function in Templot, and things have obviously moved on. How would I go about implementing an export for 3-D printing files? There seems to be a bewildering array of file formats to choose from, and a lack of good documentation about their internal structure (unless I'm missing the obvious -- I found this: http://mech.fsv.cvut.cz/~dr/papers/Lisbon04/node2.html ).

regards,

Martin.

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Andrew Barrowman
USA

 

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Thanks for all the help Martin.

I shall attend to those errant chairs shortly :) Actually, if you look closely you mght detect that they use a sort of slab and bracket construction. The base with the bolt heads is a different model (Block in CAD) from the thing that holds the rail. All I need to do is realign the base "slab".

I'll post a couple of screen shots from TurboCAD later to shed some light on the assembly process. I'm lazy, so I had to make it as easy as possible.

From what I can see the STL file format seems to be emerging as the common interchange standard for 3-D printing, but it's all quite new to me so I could be entirely wrong.

Cheers,
Andy
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Andrew Barrowman
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Andrew Barrowman wrote: .stl file of a 00-BF V-6 turnout attached.
This file is intended for viewing only. It requires further editing before 3D printing.
New and improved!
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Andrew Barrowman wrote: Andrew Barrowman wrote: .stl file of a 00-BF V-6 turnout attached.
This file is intended for viewing only. It requires further editing before 3D printing.
New and improved!
I took the liberty of equalizing the timbers on this version.
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Andrew Barrowman
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Some screenshots of the assembly process using TurboCAD.

The outline template is imported into TurboCAD as a DXF file from Templot. Only the gauge edge of the rail is used. It's best not to include the other edge in the DXF. The timber outlines and centerlines are used.

The Blocks panel to the right of the first shot contains models for the various chairs required. They all have a reference point that lies on the plane corresponding with the bottom surface of the timbers. The template is placed on that plane.

The various blocks are simply dragged from the Blocks panel and their reference (yellow dot) is snapped on to the template at the intersection of the rail gauge edge and the timber centerline. TurboCAD has a rubber stamp feature that lets you stamp the same block repeatedly with one mouse click. I've used it here to replicate a number of three bolt chairs on the template.




Some of the chairs will need to be rotated after stamping them in place.




Here one chair has been selected and has been rotated and realigned with the direction of the rail by dragging the X handle and snapping it on to the rail edge.





The timbers are extruded to the desired height with two mouse clicks. I have extruded one in this shot but I find it best to position all the chairs before extruding the timbers.








To avoid having to make lots of different chairs for all the possible crossing angles I make the chairs at the Vee from a few sub-components. Slightly more complicated, but not much.

Other than adding webs to interconnect the timbers, that's about all there is too it. I do not "add" the chairs to the timbers to make a single solid object. There is no need to do that, and if I did, it would make it much more difficult to revise a turnout design. Using blocks allows me to modify a block design and immediately apply it to every instance of that block in the turnout.
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from:
Martin Wynne
West Of The Severn, United Kingdom



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Hi Andy,

Many thanks for that.

It seems that adding and aligning the chairs is a tedious process?

One which Templot might possibly be able to do itself? Then you could create one-off 3D files to print any template in a full track plan, rather than a few fixed turnout sizes.

It would likely need a "shove chairs" function similar to shoving timbers to resolve any conflicts, such as replacing an ordinary chair with a bridge chair where needed. Which means the chairs would also need to be visible on the trackpad.

So the first question is -- are your chairs in a format which will import into Templot using the existing DXF import function (in the background shapes)?

Is it possible you could send me, or attach here, a DXF file containing just one of your chairs? I can then experiment with getting Templot to include it in the DXF export. Preferably the file would be in the DXF text format, rather than binary, so that I can read it. I can probably convert it if not.

What I'm still very hazy about is how we get from a drawing in TurboCAD to something a 3D printer can use? I've been reading that the STL format is many years old, dating from before 3D printers became generally available, and is generally regarded as too low in resolution for them?

Does your printer lay the filaments in horizontal sections, i.e. everything at one Z dimension in one go, and then step up to the next section and repeat? Or does the head move in 3 dimensions simultaneously, laying down flat angled faces for example? I spent years programming for that sort of thing in CNC milling using ball cutters and special-profiled D-cutters, but I'm thinking 3D printing is not quite the same. For example is a round filament the only option? I can see that in some applications a nozzle which extruded a flat strip might be more useful, especially if could by done at an angle from a swivellable nozzle, adding a K dimension to the X,Y,Z.

I can see that I am going to have to get one of these 3D printers and experiment before I can make sensible changes in Templot.

I have found this before, no amount of asking folks or reading docs gets me enough information. For example making Templot dpi-aware for hi-res tablet computers. The only way I could do that was to get one and try it. It was a lot of work, and expensive, but I'm very pleased with the result. But there has been minimal feedback on the subject. I wonder how many Templot users do have 3D printers or intend getting one?

regards,

Martin.

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Trevor Walling
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Hello,
      This stuff is really interesting and impressive. Using Templot  for 3D printing would take it to a whole new level. I
I wonder how many Templot users do have 3D printers or intend getting one?I have a printer from "RepRapPro".  A Mendel from about two or three years ago.It has been  superseded by more capable and easier to build models.Information about most aspects is available on their web site.
The speed of change and progress in this field is breathtaking.
There are sites where you can download files of objects to print "Thingiverse" being one.
I haven't got round to learning a CAD program to design something for printing myself yet, but it is on my ToDo list.
Regards.:)

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from:
Martin Wynne
West Of The Severn, United Kingdom



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Martin Wynne wrote:This is for the 4ft-1.5in gauge templates which I have been playing with.Here are the same templates converted to 4ft-0.5/8in gauge in 4-SF (16.2mm gauge).

There is no suggestion that 4-SF is suitable for commercial RTR pointwork, so I have changed the length of these to match the vee-rail joints in the usual way (CTRL-6 and CTRL-8 peg positions).

The plain track is set to 27 8ft sleepers per 60ft rail, with similar spacings in the turnouts. The idea is to create prototype 4ft-0.5/8in track to carry the same weight of traffic as 4ft-8.1/2in gauge track.

Martin.

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